I would like to take you on the fascinating trip to small coastal resort in east part of England. Because I live in Cambridge this remarkable place is close to me. This is the Hunstanton, a small resort in west Norfolk. The uniquity of this place lies in its location, Hunstanton is only one west-facing resort on the East Coast, that makes a special conditions for watching a beautiful sunsets.

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Pic. 1 Sunset seen from the Hunstanton beach.

This is not only one attitude of this place. Hunstanton is also known from its unique stripped cliffs.

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Pic. 2 A beautiful cliffs in Hunstanton. Read more below.

The Hunstanton (called also ‘Hunston’) began the coastline resort in 1846, when resort was built retaining this place in Victorian charm. It brought a existence for a New Hunstanton settlement. The original settlement of Hunstanton, now known as Old Hunstanton probably gained the name from the small river Hun, which runs to the coast just to the east of Old Hunstanton. It has also been opined,  that Hunstanton is the name originated from the word “Honeystone” a reference to the local red carrstone. Hunstanton grow up throughout the decades attracting tourists from across the country. Yet in XIX century the resort had been connected by railway from Kings Lynn with stops in Sandringham, Snettisham, and Wolferton Royal Station carrying often the Royal Family. The peak of its popularity Hunstanton has peaked in early XX century. The town could boast a Victorian Pleasure Pier including a lot of attractions while a steam railway going up and down. Aside for the pier in 1930s the holiday park was opened. The worst times came after 1950s, when the contemporary  major tourist attraction – the pier was destroyed by fire. In the aftermath the railway from King’s Lynn was closed as uneconomic. On top of that the town has been bypassed in 1990s weakening a local trade.

Nowadays Hunstanton is traditional family resort designated for people in all groups of age. This is not only a touristic place. Hunstanton is marked by long trade traditions, that exist till today.  Hunstanton has regular markets on Wednesday and Sunday selling fresh fish and fresh fruits and vegetables. These markets attract great numbers in the summer.

Today tourist traffic in Hunstanton tends to be smaller than previously, thereby the place itself is cosy. There are at least few remarkable sites, that you should see before plunge into the seawater:

  • The Old lighthouse, built in 1909 is the most recognisable building in the town because is to be seen easily from the opposite part of The Wash bay. The area around the lighthouse can be treated also like a nice viewpoint, from where the view from Boston to Skegness extends.

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    Pic. 3 The old lighthouse in Hunstanton.
  • Coastal cliff, that represents a red limestone and upper chalk layer. The best view is from the cliff-backed beach. Read more below to gain more details about the geological history of this place.

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    Pic. 4 The Hunstanton cliffs seen from the bottom.
  • Edmund’s Chapel probably marks the line, where New Hunstanton begins and Old Hunstanton ends. This is the oldest remnant of Hunstanton built in late XIII century by monks from Bury St. Edmund’s. This is (both with aforementioned lighthouse) the place with spectacular view on The Wash bay and beautiful sunsets.
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    Pic. 5 View on the St. Edmund’s chapel from the south. The white old lighthouse in the background.
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    Pic. 6 The Skegness sea promenade with leasure park seen from Hunstanton (29 km). See the original image here.
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    Pic. 7 The Skegness downtown seen from Hunstanton (24 km). See the original image here.
    Gibraltar point
    Pic. 8 Around 20 km to the Gibraltar Point on the opposite side The Wash bay.
    Wioska
    Pic. 9 The Wainfleet village seen from Hunstanton (25 km). See the original image here.
    Boston Cathedral
    Pic. 10 The Boston St. Botolph’s Cathedral tower seen from Hunstanton (35 km). See the original image here.
    Holbeach
    Pic. 11 The view throughout The Wash bay towards Holbeach (around 30 km ahead). See the original image here.
    King's Lynn
    Pic. 12 The King’s Lynn Power Station seen from Hunstanton (25 km). See the original image here.

    The furthest area, that you will able to see from the Hunstanton viewpoint are The Wolds in Lincolnshire (around 40 km). There is an extended highland with a lot of arable fields. In The Wolds also the Belmont TV transmitter is located, this is the  tallest construction in the UK and whole EU. You cannot really see it in naked eye during the daylight, but during the night or twilight you will able to spot flashing red lights above The Wolds. It will be Belmont TV transmitter, situated approximately 60 km from Hunstanton.

    The Wolds
    Pic. 13 The AONB The Wolds area in Lincolnshire (around 40 km) seen from Hunstanton. During the nighttime is quite easy to see flashing Belmont TV transmitter, located around 60 km from Hunstanton. See the original image here.

    Moreover on the sea you will easy spot the wind farm located around 15 km from the shore.

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    Pic. 14 One of the wind farms located on North Sea seen from Hunstanton (around 15 km distance). See the original image here.
  • The beach, which extends basically from Snettisham, although mud surface is not favourable enough to spend the time there. Sandy and gravel beach spreads alongside the Hunstanton shore. Northwards from cliff (Old Hunstanton beach) is beautiful sandy beach. See more details below.
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    Pic. 15 The Ol Hunstanton beach nearly end of the cliff.
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    Pic. 16 From Hunstanton starts the beautiful Norfolk coast with a lot of preserved areas like Holme Dunes National Reserve seen in beyond. This is a first reserve on the beach way from Old Hunstanton.
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    Pic. 17 The Hunstanton beach near the leisure centre.

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    Pic. 18 A main tourist attraction, especially during the low tide is “The Wash Monster” taking people offshore.
  • Sea Life Sanctuary is a contemporary heart of the town with a lot of attractions and shops. An object is easy accessible from the town centre and beach. This is the best tourist attraction in rainy days.
  • The Princess Theatre, former Capitol Cinema, that has been turned into theatre in 1980s.

    Princess theatre
    Pic. 19 The Hunstanton Cliff Parade, the Green garden square with Stone Memorial Cross on the left and The Princess Theatre on the right.
  • The Town Hall, a grade II listed building since late XIX century now is the tourist information centre.
  • Oasis Leisure Centre – typical leisure centre with e.g swimming pool.
  • Esplanade Gardens with tropical plants above the cliff.

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    Pic. 20 Esplanade Gardens in Hunstanton.

Hunstanton town has also a few nice places to take rest and watch the world go by. For me one of the best is Lincoln Square.

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Pic. 21 The Lincoln Square can attract the tourists, which want to rest a front of flowery anchor.

It’s good to mention also about some important infrastructure objects. There is a few hotels in Hunstanton, however for me the best is Le Strange Arms Hotel with Ancient Mariner Inn. This always busy place offers the best sunsets in whole Norfolk coast.

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Pic. 22 June sunset seen from the Le Strange Hotel parking.

At the summary of tourist attractions of the Hunstanton I would like to attach the map with all places marked (Pic. 23).

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Pic. 23 The Hunstanton tourist map based on Openstreetmap.org

The Hunstanton beach is a few km long and different in character. Predominantly this is a gravel environment on the shore with sandy basement, which is to be seen during the low tide. The New Hunstanton beach is full of candy floss, arcades, fun fair and amusements. Old Hunstanton beach is whole sandy. This is an excellent place for kite, windsurfing and buggying. The most impressive site of these two beaches is the cliff face.

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Pic. 24 The Hunstanton cliff face.

The famous red and white cliffs of Hunstanton are visited by thousands of people each year simply to see this spectacular natural geological feature. The cliff at Hunstanton are composite weak rock cliffs which have retreated by up to 30m since 1885 in a series of failures of varying size and nature  (Drake, 2007). The rock exposed around 1.5 km stretch of cliff and beach at Hunstanton is dated from the Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous Epoch to the Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. The cliff geology features three distinctive formations of marine origin:

  • The Carstone Formation is a geologic formation dating back to the Cretaceous period. This layer is built mostly with the carrstone rock. Carrstone is a sedimentary sandstone that varies in colour from light to dark rusty ginger, sometimes orange when weathered. Often used as a building stone in neighboured areas. This rock formation counts around 108Ma and is fossiliferous (only upper layer) however you can find also there a small remnants of wood. The Carstone formation is comprised of coarse sand particles interspersed with rolled pebbles.
  • The Hunstanton Formation with around 1m thickness of red colour limestone dated on 101Ma (mid-late Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous Epoch). This layer was formerly known as the red chalk. This limestone chalk colour is caused by ferrous staining of this rock layer. Basically the Hunstanton Formation is comprised with ferruginous sand grains and ooliths, red mud and calcium carbonate. All were deposited at the same time. It is suggested that the red mud is due to lateritic material derived from a neughbouring land area (Rastall, 1930).
  • Ferriby Chalk Formation is the layer extending to the cliff-top. It is represented by white or grey chalk limestone deposited during the Cenomanian stage at the start of the Late Cretaceous Epoch (99Ma). Locally this formation measures around 10m. The Ferriby Chalk Formation belongs to Grey Chalk Subgroup popular widely across the country. This rock often contains fossils such as the amonities and belemnities.

    Hunstanton cliff
    Pic. 25 The Hunstanton cliff rocks: 1a lower Carstone Formation – unfosiliferous, 1b upper Carstone Formation, 2 – Hunstanton Formation, 3 – Ferriby Chalk Formation.

The cliff area is magnet for fossil hunters with plentiful finds to be made. You can find there the Bivalves, Amonities, Belemnities, Coccoliths and Brachiopods. As you will have noted approaching on the cliff edge is extremely dangerous , because the rocks are unstable. Falling from 18m high cliff can be deadly. The cliff is strongly affected by erosion.

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Pic. 26 The Hunstanton cliff wall is destroyed by storm surges. Standing at the edge of the cliff is very dangerous (see the fallen fence on the top).

The remnants of recent cliff extension you can find on the cliff-backed beach, that is littered with huge boulders or stones covered in green weeds.

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Pic. 27, 28 The weedy boulders, that indicates a former cliff wall location.

The Hunstanton town is the Norfolk Coast Path start point.This 44 mile length route takes you along the sand dunes and beach huts. This route is the easy way to reach Old Hunstanton beach from the town centre on foot.

Hunstanton is one of the best places in the UK to kite surf and windsurf due to shallow water and open beach especially in Old Hunstanton.

Hunstanton remains a popular holiday destination for visitors of all ages. There is something for everyone from Pitch-and-Putt through a long beach to awesome view. Hunstanton’s excellent beach offers ideal conditions for playing on the sand, exploring rock pools and enjoying the sea.

Mariusz Krukar

 

References:

1. Brenchley P. J., Rawson P. F., 2006, The geology of England and Wales, The Geological Society, London.
2. Drake A. R., Phipps P. J., 2007, Cliff recession and behaviour studies, Hunstanton, UK, (in:) Proceedings of the Institution of Civils Engineers – Maritime Engineering, vol. 160, issue 1, p. 3-17
3. Owen H. G., 1995, The upper part of the Carstone and the Hunstanton Red Chalk (Albian) of the Hunstanton Cliff, Norfolk, (in:) Proceeding’s of the Geologists Association, vol. 106, Issue 3, p 171-181
4. Rastall R. H., 1930, The petrography of the Hunstanton Red Rock, (in:) Geological Magazine, vol. 67, Issue 10, p436 – 458

Links:

  1. Hunstanton Sea Life Sanctuary
  2. The Princess Theatre
  3. Oasis Leisure Centre
  4. Hunstanton Tourist Information Centre
  5. Norfolk tourist active map
  6. Tournorfolk.co.uk: An introduction to Hunstanton
  7. https://ukfossils.co.uk/hunstanton/
  8. Carstone Formation photo gallery
  9. Geocaching.com: Hunstanton cliffs
  10. Geograph.org.uk: Hunstanton cliffs
  11. Tournorfolk.co.uk: Hunstanton
  12. Hunstanton_fossils
  13. Amusingplanet.com: The red chalk cliffs of Hunstanton

Wiki:

1. Cretaceous
2. Belmont_transmitting_station
3. Carrstone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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